Apple MacBook Air A1466 820-00165 Schematic Circuit Diagram with BoardView
PC Processor Evolution
Intel was the first to incorporate L2 cache directly on the processor die (running at the same speed as the CPU core) in 1998, resulting in significant performance gains. This was done for the first time on the second-generation Celeron CPU (based on the Pentium II core), as well as the Pentium IIPE (performance enhanced) chip, which was only utilized in laptop computers. The second-generation (Coppermine core) Pentium III, launched in late 1999, was the first high-end desktop PC CPU having an on-die full-core speed L2 cache. Following this, many major CPU makers started embedding L2 (and even L3) cache on the processor die, a trend that has continued to this day.
In 1999, AMD developed the Athlon to go head-to-head with Intel in the high-end desktop PC market. The Athlon was a success, and Intel appeared to have some meaningful competition in the higher-end computers for the first time. In hindsight, Athlon's success may appear obvious, but at the time of its introduction, it was far from certain. Unlike the preceding K6 chips, which were Intel processor hardware and software compatible. The Athlon was only compatible with the software and required a motherboard with an Athlon-compatible chipset and CPU socket.
In the year 2000, both Intel and AMD achieved a key milestone when they both broke the 1GHz barrier, a speed that many felt would never be achieved. In 2001, Intel released a Pentium 4 CPU that ran at 2GHz, making it the first PC chip to do so. The microprocessor celebrated its 30th birthday on November 15, 2001, and in that time, processor speed has risen by more than 18,500 times (from 0.108MHz to 2GHz). The Athlon XP, which is based on AMD's newer Palomino core, and the Athlon MP, which is designed for multiprocessor server systems, were also announced.