Apple Macbook Pro 13 A1278 2.26GHz Logic Board 820-2530-A 661-5230 2009 Motherboard Schematic Circuit Diagram
PC Processor Evolution from 2002 to 2005
In 2002, Intel produced a 3.06GHz Pentium 4 processor, the first to break the 3GHz barrier and the first to have Intel's HyperThreading (HT) Technology, which converts the CPU into a virtual dual-processor configuration. HT-enabled CPUs may perform tasks 25 percent–40 percent quicker than non–HT-enabled processors by operating two application threads at the same time. This incentivizes programmers to build multithreaded apps, preparing them for the advent of genuine multicore CPUs a few years later.
In 2003, The Athlon 64 (formerly code-named ClawHammer, or K8) was AMD's first 64-bit PC CPU. It contained AMD-defined x86-64 64-bit extensions to the IA-32 architecture typified by the Athlon, Pentium 4, and preceding processors. The Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, the first consumer-level CPU with L3 cache, was also launched at the same time. The massive 2MB of cache increased both the transistor count and speed greatly. Intel followed AMD in 2004 by including AMD-defined x86-64 extensions in the Pentium 4.
Intel and AMD both released their first dual-core processors in 2005, effectively combining two cores onto a single chip. Although boards with two or more processors had been widely used in network servers for many years, this was the first time dual-CPU capabilities were made available in a cost-effective packaging for regular PCs. Adding processing capacity by combining two or more processors into a single chip, rather than trying to boost clock speeds as has been done in the past, allows future processors to perform more work with fewer obstacles and lower power consumption and heat production.